The Jallianwala Bagh massacre of Jallianwala Bagh ‘hatyakand’ that took place on April 13, 1919, in Amritsar, Punjab marked a turning point in India’s struggle for independence. April 13, 2023, marks the 104th anniversary of the massacre.The incident continues to be a reminder of the brutalities inflicted upon the Indian people during British colonial rule.The April 1919 massacre wasn’t an isolated incident. It rather was an incident that happened with a multitude of factors working in the background.
The Public gathered on April 13, 1919, to celebrate Baisakhi. However, the British point of view, as seen from the documents present in the National Archives of India, indicates that it was a political gathering, as per the official website.Despite General Dyer’s orders that prohibited unlawful assembly, people gathered at the Bagh, where two resolutions were to be discussed, one condemning the firing on April 10 and the other requesting the authorities to release their leaders.After the news reached Brigadier-General Dyer, he headed to the Bagh with his troops, deployed his troops and ordered them to open fire without giving any warning.
Besides, Dyer directed his soldiers to fire at the exit.The firing that continued for 10-15 minutes led to the firing of 1650 rounds. The total estimated figure of the dead as given by General Dyer and Irving was 291.However, other reports including that of a committee headed by Madan Mohan Malviya put the figure of death at over 500, as per the official web